Fault of Electric Cable
Energy Bands in Crystals
Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor
Atomic Energy Levels
Electric Pressure Cooker
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Cost of Electrical Energy
Gas Turbine Power Plant
Solar Energy Solar Electricity
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics of a Solar Cell and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Basic Wind Energy
Wind Turbine | Working Types and History of Wind Turbine
Theory of Wind Turbine
Ideal Rankine CyclePrinciples of thermodynamics are useful for power cycle for of electrical power generation (i.e net power output) and to study refrigeration & heat pump which requires input of net power. Classification of thermodynamics power cycles can be done into two types:
- Vapor cycle working fluid exists in liquid phase during one part of the cycle (i.e from condenser outlet to Boiler) and mixed phase wit in the steam boiler and in vapor phase at the Boiler outlet.
- Gas cycle working fluid during the cycle remains in gas phase.
Typical Power Plant CycleElectrical power is generated by using vapor cycle power plants by using Coal, Lignite, Diesel, Heavy furnace oil as fuel depending upon the availability and cost. The flow scheme of the vapor power cycle is given below: The entire power plant can be broken down into following sub-systems.
- Sub-system A: Classified as main-components of power plant (Turbine, Condenser, Pump, Boiler) for power generation.
- Sub-system B: Classified as stack/chimney, from where the waste gases are exhausted to atmosphere.
- Sub-system C: Classified as electric generator for converting the mechanical energy to electrical energy.
- Sub-system D: Classified as Cooling water system for absorbing the heat of the rejected steam in the condenser and helping in changing the phase of the steam to liquid (condensate).
Typical Ideal Rankine CycleIn a vapor cycle if the working fluid in a vapor cycle passes through various components of the power plant without irreversibility and frictional pressure drop, then the cycle is called as Ideal Rankine Cycle. The Rankine cycle is the basic operating cycle for all power plants where an working fluid is continuously changing its phase from liquid to vapour and vice-versa. The (p-h) and (T-s) diagrams are useful in understanding the working of Rankine cycle along with the description given below: 1-2-3 Isobaric Heat Transfer or Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler Boiler is a large heat exchanger where heat liberating fuel like coal, lignite or oil transfers the heat indirectly to water at constant pressure. Water enters the steam boiler from boiler feed pump as a compressed liquid at state-1 and is heated to the saturation temperature as shown in the T-s diagram as state-3. The energy balance in the boiler is or energy added in steam generator, qin= h3-h1 3-4 Isentropic Expansion or Isentropic expansion in a turbine Vapor from the boiler outlet enters the turbine at state 3, where it expands isentropically over the turbine fixed and moving blade to produce work done in the form of mechanical rotation of the turbine shaft which in turn is connected to the electrical generator.
Work delivered by turbine, (Neglecting heat transfer with the surroundings) Wturbine out= h3-h4 4-5 Isobaric Heat Rejection or Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser At state-4 vapor enters the condenser and the change of phase occurs as vapor is condensed to liquid at constant-pressure in the condenser by transferring the heat of the steam to the circulating water flow through the tubes of the condenser. Change of phase occurs in condenser and the working fluid leaving the condenser is in liquid state and marked as point 5. Energy rejected in the condenser, qout= h4-h5 5-1 Isentropic Compression or Isentropic compression in a pump Water exits the condenser at state 5 and enters the pump. This pump raises the pressure of the water by imparting work during the processes. In units of smaller size and because of low specific volume this small work can be neglected when compared to work-output of steam turbine. Work done on pump, per kg of water, W51= h5-h1 The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is given by, OR