n-channel JFET and p-channel JFET
Residual Current Circuit Breaker
Wien Bridge Oscillator
RC Phase Shift Oscillator
Current Transformer CT class Ratio Error Phase Angle Error in Current Transformer
Voltage Transformer or Potential Transformer Theory
Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer PS Class
Accuracy Limit Factor and Instrument Security Factor of Current Transformer
What is transformer? Definition and Working Principle of Transformer
EMF Equation of Transformer | Turns Voltage Transformation Ratio of Transformer
Theory of Transformer on Load and No Load Operation
Resistance and Leakage Reactance or Impedance of Transformer
Equivalent Circuit of Transformer referred to Primary and Secondary
Hysteresis Eddy Current Iron or Core Losses and Copper Loss in Transformer
Voltage Regulation of Transformer
Single Three Phase Transformer vs bank of three Single Phase Transformers
Parallel operation of Transformers
Magnetizing Inrush Current in Power Transformer
Transformer Insulating Oil and Types of Transformer Oil
DGA or Dissolved Gas Analysis of Transformer Oil | Furfural or Furfuraldehyde Analysis
Transformer Accessories | Breather and Conservator Tank | Radiator
Silica Gel Breather of Transformer
Conservator Tank of Transformer
Radiator of Transformer | Function of Radiator
Magnetic Oil Gauge or MOG | Magnetic Oil Level Indicator of Transformer
Oil Winding and Remote Temperature Indicator of Transformer
Transformer Cooling System and Methods
On Load and No Load Tap Changer of Transformer | OLTC and NLTC
Tertiary Winding of Transformer | Three Winding Transformer
Core of Transformer and Design of Transformer Core
Restricted Earth Fault Protection of Transformer | REF Protection
Buchholz Relay in transformer | Buchholz Relay operation and principle
What is Earthing Transformer or Grounding Transformer
Differential Protection of Transformer | Differential Relays
Over Fluxing in Transformer
Transformer Testing | Type Test and Routine Test of Transformer
Transformer Winding Resistance Measurement
Voltage and Turn Ratio Test of Transformer
Vector Group Test of Power Transformer
Open and Short Circuit Test on Transformer
Insulation Dielectric Test of Transformer
Transformer Oil and Winding Temperature Rise Test
Impulse Test of Transformer
Maintenance of Transformer
Sweep Frequency Response Analysis Test | SFRA Test
Installation of Power Transformer
Commissioning of Power Transformer
Electrical Power Transformer | Definition and Types of Transformer
What is Auto Transformer ?
High Voltage Transformer
Distribution Transformer | All Day Efficiency of Distribution Transformer
Dry Type Transformer
Air Core Transformer
Design of Inductor in Switched Mode Power Supply Systems
Design of High Frequency Pulse Transformer
Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer PS Class
Current Transformer PS ClassBefore understanding Knee Point Voltage of Current Transformer and current transformer PS class we should recall the terms instrument security factor of CT and accuracy limit factor.
Instrument Security Factor or ISF of Current TransformerInstrument security factor is the ratio of instrument limit primary current to the rated primary current. Instrument limit current of a metering current transformer is the maximum value of primary current beyond which current transformer core becomes saturated. Instrument security factor of CT is the significant factor for choosing the metering instruments which to be connected to the secondary of the CT. Security or Safety of the measuring unit is better, if ISF is low. If we go through the example below it would be clear to us.
Suppose one current transformer has rating 100/1 A and ISF is 1.5 and another current transformer has same rating with ISF 2. That means, in first CT, the metering core would be saturated at 1.5 × 100 or 150 A, whereas is second CT, core will be saturated at 2 × 100 or 200 A. That means whatever may be the primary current of both CTs, secondary current will not increase further after 150 and 200 A of primary current of the CTs respectively. Hence maximum secondary current of the CTs would be 1.5 and 2.0 A.
As the maximum current can flow through the instrument connected to the first CT is 1.5 A which is less than the maximum value of current can flow through the instrument connected to the second CT i.e. 2 A. Hence security or safety of the instruments of first CT is better than later.
Another significance of ISF is during huge electrical fault, the short circuit current, flows through primary of the CT does not affect destructively, the measuring instrument attached to it as because, the secondary current of the CT will not rise above the value of rated secondary current multiplied by ISF.
Accuracy Limit Factor or ALF of Current TransformerFor protection current transformer, the ratio of accuracy limit primary current to the rated primary current. First we will explain, what is rated accuracy limit primary current?.
Broadly, this is the maximum value of primary current, beyond which core of the protection CT or simply protection core of of a CT starts saturated. The value of rated accuracy limit primary current is always many times more than the value of instrument limit primary current. Actually CT transforms the fault current of the electrical power system for operation of the protection relays connected to the secondary of that CT. If the core of the CT becomes saturated at lower value of primary current, as in the case of metering CT, the system fault will not reflect properly to the secondary, which may cause, the relays remain inoperative even the fault level of the system is large enough. That is why the core of the protection CT is made such a way that saturation level of that core must be high enough. But still there is a limit as because, it is impossible to make one magnetic core with infinitely high saturation level and secondly most important reason is that although the protection care should have high saturation level but that must be limited up to certain level otherwise total transformation of primary current during huge fault may badly damage the protection relays. So it is clear from above explanation, rated accuracy limit primary current, should not be so less, that it will not at all help the relays to be operated on the other hand this value must not be so high that it can damage the relays.
So, accuracy limit factor or ALF should not have the value nearer to unit and at the same time it should not be as high as 100. The standard values of ALF as per IS-2705 are 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30.
Knee Point Voltage of Current TransformerThis is the significance of saturation level of a CT core mainly used for protection purposes. The sinusoidal voltage of rated frequency applied to the secondary terminals of current transformer, with other winding being open circuited, which when increased by 10% cause the exiting current to increase 50%. The CT core is made of CRGO steel. It has its won saturation level. The EMF induced in the CT secondary windings is
In differential and restricted earth fault (REF) protection scheme, accuracy class and ALF of the CT may not ensure the reliability of the operation. It is desired that, differential and REF relays should not be operated when fault occurs outside the protected transformer. When any fault occurs outside the differential protection zone, the faulty current flows through the CTs of both sides of electrical power transformer. The both LV and HV CTs have magnetizing characteristics. Beyond the knee point, for slight increase in secondary emf a large increasing in excitation current is required. So after this knee point excitation current of both current transformers will be extremely high, which may cause mismatch between secondary current of LV & HV current transformers. This phenomena may cause unexpected tripping of power transformer. So the magnetizing characteristics of both LV & HV sides CTs, should be same that means they have same knee point voltage Vk as well as same excitation current Ie at Vk/2. It can be again said that, if both knee point voltage of current transformer and magnetizing characteristic of CTs of both sides of power transformer differ, there must be a mismatch in high excitation currents of the CTs during fault which ultimately causes the unbalancing between secondary current of both groups of CTs and transformer trips.
So for choosing CT for differential protection of transformer, one should consider current transformer PS class rather its convectional protection class. PS stands for protection special which is defined by knee point voltage of current transformer Vk and excitation current Ie at Vk/2.