Transistor as Switch
Bidirectional Shift Register
Parallel in Parallel Out (PIPO) Shift Register
Parallel in Serial Out (PISO) Shift Register
Serial in Parallel Out (SIPO) Shift Register
Electrical Insulator | Insulating Material | Porcelain Glass Polymer Insulator
Types of Electrical Insulator | Overhead Insulator
Insulation Coordination in Power System
Electrical Insulator Testing | Cause of Insulator failure
Electrical Power Cable
Types of Overhead Conductor
Testing of Electrical Power Cable | Type Test | Acceptance Test | Routine Test
Conductor Resistance Test of Electrical Power Cables
Test for Thickness of Insulation of Power Cable
Annealing Test for Wires and Conductors
Tensile Test of Conductors
Persulphate Test of Conductor
Wrapping Test for Conductors
Capacitor Bank | Reactive Power Compensation
Types of Capacitor Bank
Specifications or Rating of Power Capacitor Bank
Location of Shunt Capacitors
Switchable Capacitor Bank or Switched Capacitor Bank
Electrical Power Substation Engineering and Layout
Electrical Bus System and Electrical Substation Layout
Mobile Substation | Portable Substation | Mobile Transformer
Load Curve | Load Duration Curve | Daily Load Curve
Electrical Transmission Tower Types and Design
Methods of Transmission Tower Erection
Basic Concept of Transmission Tower Foundation
Design of Foundations of Transmission Towers in different Soils
Corona Effect in Power System
Ferranti Effect in Power System
Skin Effect in Transmission Lines
Inductance of Two Wire Single Phase Transmission Line
Advantages of Three Phase System over Single Phase System
Inductance in Single Conductor Power Transmission Line
Inductance in Three Phase Transmission Line
Why Supply Frequency 50 or 60 Hz not Other Values than these?
Power System Stability
Load Flow or Power Flow Analysis
Transient Stability in Power System
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
Tariff of electricity in India
Power Factor | Calculation and Power Factor Improvement
Electrical Power Transmission System and Network
Transmission Line in Power System
Voltage in Power Electric Lines
Short Transmission Line
Medium Transmission Line
Long Transmission Line
Performance of Transmission Line
ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line
Sag in Overhead Conductor
Insulation Coordination in Power System
confindes to the place where it would result in the least danmage of the system, easy to repair and replace, and results least disturbance to the power supply. When any over voltage appears in the electrical power system, then there may be a chance of failure of its insulation system. Probability of failure of insulation, is high at the weakest insulation point nearest to the source of over voltage. In power system and transmission networks, insulation is provided to the all equipment and components. Insulators in some points are easily replaceable and repairable compared to other. Insulation in some points are not so easily replaceable and repairable and the replacement and repairing may be highly expensive and require long interruption of power. Moreover failure of insulator at these points may causes bigger part of electrical network to be out of service. So it is desirable that in situation of insulator failure, only the easily replaceable and repairable insulator fails. The overall aim of insulation coordination is to reduce to an economically and operationally acceptable level the cost and disturbance caused by insulation failure. In insulation coordination method, the insulation of the various parts of the system must be so graded that flash over if occurs it must be at intended points. For proper understanding the insulation coordination we have to understand first, some basic terminologies of the electrical power system. Let us have a discussion.
Nominal System VoltageNominal System Voltage is the phase to phase voltage of the system for which the system is normally designed. Such as 11KV, 33KV, 132KV, 220KV, 400KV systems.
Maximum System VoltageMaximum System Voltage is the maximum allowable power frequency voltage which can occurs may be for long time during no load or low load condition of the power system. It is also measured in phase to phase manner. List of different nominal system voltage and their corresponding maximum system voltage is given below for reference,
|Nominal System Voltage in KV||11||33||66||132||220||400|
|Maximum System Voltage in KV||12||36||72.5||145||245||420|
Factor of EarthingThis is the ratio of the highest rms phase to earth power frequency voltage on a sound phase during an earth fault to the rms phase to phase power frequency voltage which would be obtained at the selected location without the fault.
This ratio characterizes, in general terms, the earthing conditions of a system as viewed from the selected fault location.
Effectively Earthed SystemA system is said to be effectively earthed if the factor of earthing does not exceed 80% and non-effectively earthed if it does. Factor of earthing is 100% for an isolated neutral system, while it is 57.7% (1/√3 = 0.577) for solidly earthed system.
Insulation LevelEvery electrical equipment has to undergo different abnormal transient over voltage situation in different times during its total service life period. The equipment may have to withstand lightning impulses, switching impulses and/or short duration power frequency over voltages. Depending upon the maximum level of impulse voltages and short duration power frequency over voltages that one power system component can withstand, the insulation level of high voltage power system is determined. During determining the insulation level of the system rated less than 300 KV, the lightning impulse withstand voltage and short duration power frequency withstand voltage are considered. For equipment rated more or equal 300 KV, switching impulse withstand voltage and short duration power frequency withstand voltage are considered.
Lightning Impulse VoltageThe system disturbances occur due to natural lightning, can be represented by three different basic wave shapes. If a lightning impulse voltage travels some distance along the transmission line before it reaches to a insulator its wave shaped approaches to full wave, and this wave is referred as 1.2/50 wave. If during travelling, the lightning disturbance wave causes flash over across an insulator the shape of the wave becomes chopped wave. If a lightning stroke hits directly on the insulator then the lightning impulse voltage may rise steep until it is relieved by flash over, causing sudden, very steep collapse in voltage. These three waves are quite different in duration and in shapes.
Switching ImpulseDuring switching operation there may be uni-polar voltage appears in the system. The wave form of which may be periodically damped or oscillating one. Switching impulse wave form has steep front and long damped oscillating tale.
Short Duration Power Frequency Withstand VoltageShort duration power frequency withstand voltage is the prescribed rms value of sinusoidal power frequency voltage that the electrical equipment shall withstand for a specific period of time normally 60 seconds.
Protection Level Voltage of Protective DeviceOver voltage protective device like surge arrestors or lightning arrestors are designed to withstand a certain level of transient over voltage beyond which the devices drain the surge energy to the ground and therefore maintain the level of transient over voltage up to a specific level. Thus transient over voltage can not exceed that level. The protection level of over voltage protective device is the highest peak voltage value which should not be exceeded at the terminals of over voltage protective device when switching impulses and lightening impulses are applied.
Now let us discuss the insulation coordination methods one by one-
Using Shield Wire or Earth WireLightning surge in over head transmission line may be caused due to direct hits of lightening strokes. It can be protected by providing a shield wire or earth wire at a suitable height from the top conductor of transmission line. If the conducting shield wire is properly connected to transmission tower body and the tower is properly earthed then direct lightning strokes can be avoided from all the conductors come under the protective angle of earth wire. Over head earth wire or ground wire or shield wire is also used to over the electrical substation to protect different electrical equipment from lightning strokes.
Conventional Method of Insulation Coordination
As we discussed above that a component of electrical power system may suffer from different level of transient voltage stresses, switching impulse voltage and lightning impulse voltage. The maximum amplitude of transient over voltages reach the components, can be limited by using protecting device like lightning arrestor in the system. If we maintain the insulation level of all the power system component above the protection level of protective device, then ideally there will be no chance of breakdown of insulation of any component. Since the transient over voltage reaches at the insulation after crossing the surge protective devices will have amplitude equals to protection level voltage and protection level voltage < impulse insulation level of the components.
Generally, the impulse insulation level is established at 15 to 25% above the protective level voltage of protective devices.