Parallel in Parallel Out (PIPO) Shift Register
Parallel in Serial Out (PISO) Shift Register
Serial in Parallel Out (SIPO) Shift Register
Why is Fluorescent Lamp Phosphor Coated?
Construction of Fluorescent Lamp
Electric Power Generation
Power Plants and Types of Power Plant
Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station
Why Supply Frequency is 50 Hz or 60 Hz?
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant
Diesel Power Station
Cogeneration | Combined Heat and Power
Economiser in Thermal Power Plant | Economiser
MHD Generation or Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation
Thermoelectric Power Generators or Seebeck Power Generation
Steam Boiler | Working principle and Types of Boiler
Methods of Firing Steam Boiler
Fire Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Fire Tube Boiler
Water Tube Boiler | Operation and Types of Water Tube Boiler
Steam Boiler Furnace Grate Firebox Combustion Chamber of Furnace
Feed Water and Steam Circuit of Boiler
Boiler Feed Water Treatment Demineralization Reverse Osmosis Plant Deaerator
Coal Combustion Theory
Fluidized Bed Combustion | Types and Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion
Steam Condenser of Turbine
Jet Condenser | Low Level High Level Ejector Jet Condenser
Surface Steam Condenser
Economics of Power Generation
Cooling Tower Useful Terms and Cooling Tower Performance
Cooling Tower Material and Main Components
Power Plant Fire Protection System
Hydrant System for Power Plant Fire Protection
Medium Velocity Water Spray or MVWS System for Fire Protection
Foam Fire Protection System
Fire Detection and Alarm System
Gas Extinguishing System
Solar Energy Solar Electricity
Solar Energy System | History of Solar Energy
Types of Solar Power Station
Components of a Solar Electric Generating System
What is photovoltaic effect?
Staebler Wronski Effect
Working Principle of Photovoltaic Cell or Solar Cell
Characteristics and Parameters of a Solar Cell
Solar Cell Manufacturing Technology
What is a Solar PV Module?
What is Standalone Solar Electric System?
Steam Dryness Fraction
Superheated Steam and Steam Phase Diagram
Vapour Properties Mollier Chart Heat Capacities
What is Steam Flashing?
How to Calculate Steam Consumption During Plant Start Up
Effective Steam Distribution System
What is Water Hammer?
Engineering Thermodynamics Part 1
Science of Engineering Thermodynamics Part 2
Basic Law of Conservation and First Law of Thermodynamics
Carnot Cycle and Reversed Carnot Cycle
Enthalpy Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics
Rankine Cycle and Regenerative Feed Heating
Rankine Cycle for Closed Feed Water Heaters and Rankine Cycle Cogeneration
Ideal Verses Actual Rankine Cycle
Rankine Cycle Efficiency Improvement Techniques
Basic Wind Energy
Wind Turbine | Working Types and History of Wind Turbine
Theory of Wind Turbine
Hydro Power Plant | Construction Working and History of Hydro power plant
Construction and Working of Hydro Power PlantFundamental parts of hydro power plant are a) Area b) Dam c) Reservoir d) Penstock e) Storage tank f) Turbines and generators g) Switchgear and protection For construction of hydro power plant first we choose the area where the water is sufficient to reserve and no any crisis of water and suitable to build a dam, then we construct the dam. The main function of dam is to stop the flow of water and reserve the water in reservoir. Mainly dam is situated at a good height to increase the force of water. Reservoir stocks up lots of water which is employed to generate power by means of turbines. After that Penstock, the pipe which is connected between dam and turbine blades and most important purpose of the penstock is to enlarge the kinetic energy of water that’s why this pipe is made up of extremely well-built material which carry on the pressure of water. To control the pressure of water means increase or decrease water pressure whenever required, we use a valve. Storage tank comes in picture when the some reason the pressure of water in reservoir is decreases then we use storage tank it is directly connected to penstock and use only in emergency condition. After that we employ turbine and generator. Turbine is the main stuff, when water comes through the penstock with high kinetic energy and falls on turbine blades, turbine rotates at high speed. As we know that the turbine is an engine that transfers energy of fluid into mechanical energy which is coupled with generator and generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy which we utilize at the end. In hydro power plant we also add switchgears and protections which control and protect the whole process inside the plant. The control equipments consists control circuits, control devices, warning, instrumentation etc and connect to main control board. After generating electricity at low voltage, we use step up transformer to enlarge the level of voltage (generally 132KV, 220KV, 400KV and above) as per our requirement. After that we transmit the electric power to the load center, and then we step down the voltage for industrial and large consumer and then again we step down the voltage to distribute electricity at domestic level which we used at home. This is the whole process of generating electricity by the means of hydro (hydro power plant) and then transmitting and distributing electricity.
History of Hydro Power PlantFirst hydro power is used by the Greekins to spin water wheels for crushing wheat into flour before more than 2000 years ago. In the 1700's, hydropower was generally used for pumping irrigation (non-natural use of water on the way to the land) water. We start to generate electricity from hydro power in 1882 when United States (U S) establishes a first hydro power station which generate 12.5 kilowatts (KW) of power. The rapid growth of hydro power comes in 1900’s when hydraulic reaction turbine comes in picture as a result in 1900’s hydro power plants fulfill the requirement of 40% of total United States' electricity. In between 1905-1911 largest hydro power station (Roosevelt Dam) is built by the united state and its generated capacity is increased from 4500kW to 36,000kW.In 1914 S.J. Zowski developed the high specific speed reaction (Francis) turbine runner for low head applications. 1922 the first time a hydroelectric plant was built specifically for crest power. In 1933 Hoover Dam, Arizona generated electricity first time. In 1940 over 1500 hydro power plants generate about one third of the United States' electrical energy.
If we compare the countries on the basis of generated electricity by the means of hydro power, Canada on the top after that United State then Brazil then Russia then China then Norway and at 7th number India is present. India fulfills the 3.5% power to the total world power through hydro power plants. In India scope of hydro power is very good, first hydro power station, capacity of 130kW establishes in Asia at mounts of Darjeeling in 1898 and after that in 1902 Shimsh (Shivanasamudra) is established and both located in India. Now a day in India the leading hydro power plant is located of river Naptha Jhakri hydro project of 1500MW in Himachal Pradesh. In India main boost come in the field of hydro power in august 1998 when the Government of India publicized a plan on ‘Hydro Power Development’ after that in November 2008 once again Indian government announced this plan and as a result India become leading country list to produce hydro power. This a general idea about hydro power plant.