X OR Gate and X NOR Gate
Binary Number System | Binary to Decimal and Decimal to Binary Conversion
Binary to Octal and Octal to Binary Conversion
Binary to Decimal and Decimal to Binary Conversion
Octal to Decimal and Decimal to Octal Conversion
Hexadecimal to Decimal and Decimal to Hexadecimal Conversion
9s complement and 10s complement | Subtraction
Gray Code | Binary to Gray Code and that to Binary Conversion
Binary to Hexadecimal and Hex to Binary Conversion
Excess 3 Code Addition and Subtraction
BCD or Binary Coded Decimal | BCD Conversion Addition Subtraction
Boolean Algebra Theorems and Laws of Boolean Algebra
Alphanumeric codes | ASCII code | EBCDIC code | UNICODE
De Morgan Theorem and Demorgans Laws
OR Operation | Logical OR Operation
Logical OR Gate
AND Operation | Logical AND Operation
Logical AND Gate
X OR Gate and X NOR Gate
Universal Gate | NAND and NOR Gate as Universal Gate
Some Common Applications of Logic Gates
Seven Segment Display
Error Detection and Correction Codes
Logic Families Significance and Types
Transistor Transistor Logic or TTL
NMOS and PMOS Logic
Fan out of Logic Gates
X OR Gate and X NOR Gate
Realization of Two Inputs XOR GateThe above expression, A ⊕ B can be simplified as, Let us prove the above expression. In first case consider, A = 0 and B = 0. In second case consider, A = 0 and B = 1. In third case consider, A = 1 and B = 0. In fourth case consider, A = 1 and B = 1. So it is proved that, the Boolean expression for A ⊕ B is AB ̅ + ĀB, as this Boolean expression satisfied all output states respect to inputs conditions, of an XOR gate. From this Boolean expression one can easily realize the logical circuit of an XOR gate and this will be as show,
Logical Symbol of XOR GateAn exOR gate or XOR gate is logically represented as,
More than Two Inputs XOR GateAs we told already, that XOR gates are two inputs gate, but XOR operation of more than two inputs then can be realized by using more than one or two inputs XOR gate. More than two inputs XOR operation is that, when odd number of inputs in the gate are 1, the output is 1 and when none or even number of inputs are 1, the output is logical 0.
Realization of more than Two inputs XOR GateLet us realize an XOR gate with three inputs A, B, and C. Now, as per definition of XOR operation with more than three inputs, the truth table would be, This truth table can be elaborated as, From the above elaborated truth table it is found that, XOR operation of three binary variables is equivalent to, XOR operation one variable with result of XOR operations of other two variables. From above truth table,
XNOR GateXNOR gate is a NOT gate followed by an XOR gate. As we know that XOR operation of inputs A and B is A ⊕ B, therefore XNOR operation those inputs will be (A + B) ̅. That means, output of XOR gate is inverted in XNOR gate. In XOR operation, the output is only 1 when only one input is 1. The output is logical 0 when both inputs are same that means they are either 1 or 0. But in the case of XNOR gate, the output is 0 only when only one input is 0 and the output is 1. When both inputs are same that is either both of them are 0 or 1. The truth table of the XNOR gate is shown below, The logical XNOR operation is represented by ⊙. That is a dot surrounded by circle. The expression of XNOR operation between variable A and B is represented as A ⊙ B. Now again, the truth table is satisfied by the equation AB + ĀB ̅. Hence, it is proved that A ⊙ B = AB + ĀB ̅. The same can be proved by using K-map also.
Realization of XNOR GateThe expression of XNOR operation can be realized by using two NOT gates, two AND gates and one OR gate as followers, The symbol of XNOR gate.
Three Inputs of XNOR GatesLike XOR gate, XNOR gate only exists with two inputs but for XNOR operation with more than two inputs, we have to use more than one XNOR gates. XNOR operation with more than two inputs is like that, when there are odd numbers of inputs are in high or logical 1 condition, the output will be 0 in otherwise the output will be 1. Now, From this elaborate truth table, the logical symbol of three inputs XNOR gate can be represented as,
AdditionThe main application of the Exclusive OR gate is in the operation of half and full adder. If we look at the truth table carefully we will find that the first three results are totally satisfying the process of binary addition but in the last input sequence i.e. when both the inputs are 1 the result according to the rule of addition should be 0 with a carry 1. In the truth table we are getting the desired 0 but a missing 1.
To solve this problem during designing the circuit of an adder an AND gate is added to the Ex-OR gate in parallel. We will show the circuit of the adder in detail. From the above diagram, we can see that in the circuit of a half adder the two inputs are going through an Exclusive-OR gate and through an AND gate parallelly. And with this circuit’s operation we get the total process of binary addition smoothly. Pseudo-random number generation To model a linear feedback shift register Ex-OR gates are used and they generate random sequence of bits.