Online Electrical Engineering
Electrical Measuring Instruments | Types Accuracy Precision Resolution Speed
Errors in Measurement | Classification of Errors
Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument or PMMC Instrument
Moving Iron Instrument
Thermocouple type Instruments Construction Principle of Operation
Electrostatic Type Instruments Construction Principle Torque Equation
Rectifier Type Instrument | Construction Principle of Operation
Induction Type Meters
Electrodynamometer Type Wattmeter
What is Low Power Factor Wattmeter ?
Energy Meter with Lag Adjustment Devices
Measurement of Three Phase Power
Power Factor Meters | Electrodynamometer Type Power Factor Meter
Maxwell Bridge Inductance Capacitance Bridge
Anderson′s Bridge | Advantages Disadvantages of Anderson′s Bridge
Hay′s Bridge Circuit Theory Phasor Diagram Advantages Applications
Owens Bridge Circuit and Advantages
De Sauty Bridge
Schering Bridge Measurement of Capacitance using Schering Bridge
Heaviside Bridge Circuit
Weston Type Frequency Meter
Blavier Test | Murray Loop Test | Varley Loop Test | Fisher Loop Test
Sensor | Types of Sensor
Temperature Sensor Temperature Measurement | Types of Temperature Sensor
Transducer | Types of Transducer
Radiation Pyrometer | Types Working Principle
Thermistor Thermometer | Thermistor Temperature Sensor | Construction & Principle
Thermocouple Temperature Measurement
Optical Pyrometer | Construction and Working Principle
Bimetallic Strip Thermometer
Resistance Temperature Detector or RTD | Construction and Working Principle
Insulation Resistance Test and Polarization Index Test
Varmeter | Single Phase and Polyphase Varmeter
Tan Delta Test |Loss Angle Test | Dissipation Factor Test
Phase Sequence Indicator
Megger | Working Principle Types History Uses of Megger
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope | CRO
Electrodynamometer Type Wattmeter
Under Measurementcurrent carrying conductor is placed inside a magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force and due this mechanical force deflection of conductor takes place".
Construction and Working Principle of Electrodynamometer Type WattmeterNow let us look at constructional details of electrodynamometer. It consists of following parts There are two types of coils present in the electrodynamometer. They are :
(a) Moving coil : Moving coil moves the pointer with the help of spring control instrument. A limited amount of current flows through the moving coil so as to avoid heating. So in order to limit the current we have connect the high value resistor in series with the moving coil. The moving is air cored and is mounted on a pivoted spindle and can moves freely. In electrodynamometer type wattmeter, moving coil works as pressure coil. Hence moving coil is connected across the voltage and thus the current flowing through this coil is always proportional to the voltage.
(b) Fixed coil: The fixed coil is divided into two equal parts and these are connected in series with the load, therefore the load current will flow through these coils. Now the reason is very obvious of using two fixed coils instead of one, so that it can be constructed to carry considerable amount of electric current. These coils are called the current coils of electrodynamometer type wattmeter. Earlier these fixed coils are designed to carry the current of about 100 amperes but now the modern wattmeter are designed to carry current of about 20 amperes in order to save power.
(c) Control system: Out of two controlling systems i.e.
(1) Gravity control (2) Spring control, only spring controlled systems are used in these types of wattmeter. Gravity controlled system cannot be employed because they will appreciable amount of errors.
(e) Scale: There is uniform scale is used in these types of instrument as moving coil moves linearly over a range of 40 degrees to 50 degrees on either sides.
Now let us derive the expressions for the controlling torque and deflecting torques. In order to derive these expressions let us consider the circuit diagram given below:
We know that instantaneous torque in electrodynamic type instruments is directly proportional to product of instantaneous values of currents flowing through both the coils and the rate of change of flux linked with the circuit.
Let I1 and I2 be the instantaneous values of currents in pressure and current coils respectively. So the expression for the torque can be written as:
where x is the angle. Now let the applied value of voltage across the pressure coil be
Assuming the electrical resistance of the pressure coil be very high hence we can neglect reactance with respect to its resistance. In this the impedance is equal to its electrical resistance therefore it is purely resistive. The expression for instantaneous current can be written as I2 = v / Rp where Rp is the resistance of pressure coil.
Hence the instantaneous value of torque can be written as
Average value of deflecting torque can be obtained by integrating the instantaneous torque from limit 0 to T, where T is the time period of the cycle.
Controlling torque is given by Tc = Kx where K is spring constant and x is final steady state value of deflection.