Online Electrical Engineering
Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS)
Types of Overhead Conductor
Electrical Power Transmission System and Network
Short Transmission Line
Medium Transmission Line
Long Transmission Line
ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line
Electrical Transmission Tower Types and Design
Performance of Transmission Line
Methods of Transmission Tower Erection
Basic Concept of Transmission Tower Foundation
Design of Foundations of Transmission Towers in different Soils
Insulation Coordination in Power System
Types of Electrical Insulator | Overhead Insulator
Electrical Insulator | Insulating Material | Porcelain Glass Polymer Insulator
Electrical Insulator Testing | Cause of Insulator failure
Test for Thickness of Insulation of Power Cable
Electrical Power Substation Engineering and Layout
Mobile Substation | Portable Substation | Mobile Transformer
Electrical Bus System and Electrical Substation Layout
Electrical Isolator or Electrical Isolation Switch
Skin Effect in Transmission Lines
Corona Effect in Power System
ZnO Gapless Lightning Arrester or Surge Arrester
Ferranti Effect in Power System
Electrical Power Cable
Conductor Resistance Test of Electrical Power Cables
Testing of Electrical Power Cable | Type Test | Acceptance Test | Routine Test
Annealing Test for Wires and Conductors
Tensile Test of Conductors
Persulphate Test of Conductor
Wrapping Test for Conductors
Load Curve | Load Duration Curve | Daily Load Curve
Tariff of electricity in India
High Voltage Transmission Lines
Power System Stability
Transient Stability in Power System
Power Factor | Calculation and Power Factor Improvement
Remote Controlling of Circuit Breaker by Microcontroller
Electrical Bus System and Electrical Substation Layout
The Main Criteria’s To be Considered During Selection of one Particular Bus – Bar Arrangement Scheme Among Others(i) Simplicity of system. (ii) Easy maintenance of different equipments. (iii) Minimizing the outage during maintenance. (iv) Future provision of extension with growth of demand. (v) Optimizing the selection of bus bar arrangement scheme so that it gives maximum return from the system. Some very commonly used bus bar arrangement are discussed below-
Single Bus SystemSingle Bus System is simplest and cheapest one. In this scheme all the feeders and transformer bay are connected to only one single bus as show.
Advantages of Single Bus System1) This is very simple in design. 2) This is very cost effective scheme. 3) This is very convenient to operate.
Disadvantages of Single Bus System
1) One but major difficulty of these type of arrangement is that, maintenance of equipment of any bay cannot be possible without interrupting the feeder or transformer connected to that bay. 2) The indoor 11KV switchboards have quite often single bus bar arrangement.
Single Bus System with Bus SectionalizerSome advantages are realized if a single bus bar is sectionalized with circuit breaker. If there are more than one incoming and the incoming sources and outgoing feeders are evenly distributed on the sections as shown in the figure, interruption of system can be reduced to a good extent.
Advantages of Single Bus System with Bus SectionalizerIf any of the sources is out of system, still all loads can be fed by switching on the sectional circuit breaker or bus coupler breaker. If one section of the bus bar system is under maintenance, part load of the substation can be fed by energizing the other section of bus bar.
Disadvantages of Single Bus System with Bus Sectionalizer1) As in the case of single bus system, maintenance of equipment of any bay cannot be possible without interrupting the feeder or transformer connected to that bay. 2) The use of isolator for bus sectionalizing does not fulfill the purpose. The isolators have to be operated ‘off circuit’ and which is not possible without total interruption of bus – bar. So investment for bus-coupler breaker is required.
Double Bus System1) In double bus bar system two identical bus bars are used in such a way that any outgoing or incoming feeder can be taken from any of the bus. 2)Actually every feeder is connected to both of the buses in parallel through individual isolator as shown in the figure. By closing any of the isolators one can put the feeder to associated bus. Both of the buses are energized and total feeders are divided into two groups, one group is fed from one bus and other from other bus. But any feeder at any time can be transferred from one bus to other. There is one bus coupler breaker which should be kept close during bus transfer operation. For transfer operation, one should first close the bus coupler circuit breaker then close the isolator associated with the bus to where the feeder would be transferred and then open the isolator associated with the bus from where feeder is transferred. Lastly after this transfer operation he or she should open the bus coupler breaker.
Advantages of Double Bus System
Double Bus Bar Arrangement increases the flexibility of system.
Disadvantages of Double Bus SystemThe arrangement does not permit breaker maintenance with out interruption.
Double Breaker Bus SystemIn double breaker bus bar system two identical bus bars are used in such a way that any outgoing or incoming feeder can be taken from any of the bus similar to double bus bar system. Only difference is that here every feeder is connected to both of the buses in parallel through individual breaker instead only isolator as shown in the figure. By closing any of the breakers and its associated isolators, one can put the feeder to respective bus. Both of the buses are energized and total feeders are divided into two groups, one group is fed from one bus and other from other bus similar to previous case. But any feeder at any time can be transferred from one bus to other. There is no need of bus coupler as because the operation is done by breakers instead of isolator. For transfer operation, one should first close the isolators and then the breaker associated with the bus to where the feeder would be transferred and then he or she opens the breaker and then isolators associated with the bus from where feeder is transferred.
One and A Half Breaker Bus SystemThis is an improvement on the double breaker scheme to effect saving in the number of circuit breakers. For every two circuits only one spare breaker is provided. The protection is however complicated since it must associate the central breaker with the feeder whose own breaker is taken out for maintenance. For the reasons given under double breaker scheme and because of the prohibitory costs of equipment even this scheme is not much popular. As shown in the figure that it is a simple design, two feeders are fed from two different buses through their associated breakers and these two feeders are coupled by a third breaker which is called tie breaker. Normally all the three breakers are closed and power is fed to both the circuits from two buses which are operated in parallel. The tie breaker acts as coupler for the two feeder circuits.
During failure of any feeder breaker, the power is fed through the breaker of the second feeder and tie breaker, therefore each feeder breaker has to be rated to feed both the feeders, coupled by tie breaker.
Advantages of One and A Half Breaker Bus SystemDuring any fault on any one of the buses, that faulty bus will be cleared instantly without interrupting any feeders in the system since all feeders will continue to feed from other healthy bus.
Disadvantages of One and A Half Breaker Bus System
This scheme is much expensive due to investment for third breaker.
Main and Transfer Bus SystemThis is an alternative of double bus system. The main conception of Main and Transfer Bus System is, here every feeder line is directly connected through an isolator to a second bus called transfer bus. The said isolator in between transfer bus and feeder line is generally called bypass isolator. The main bus is as usual connected to each feeder through a bay consists of circuit breaker and associated isolators at both side of the breaker. There is one bus coupler bay which couples transfer bus and main bus through a circuit breaker and associated isolators at both sides of the breaker. If necessary the transfer bus can be energized by main bus power by closing the transfer bus coupler isolators and then breaker. Then the power in transfer bus can directly be fed to the feeder line by closing the bypass isolator. If the main circuit breaker associated with feeder is switched off or isolated from system, the feeder can still be fed in this way by transferring it to transfer bus.
Switching Operation for Transferring a Feeder to Transfer Bus from Main Bus without Interruption of Power(i) First close the isolators at both side of the bus coupler breaker.
(ii) Then close the bypass isolator of the feeder which is to be transferred to transfer bus.
(iii) Now energized the transfer bus by closing the bus coupler circuit breaker from remote.
(iv) After bus coupler breaker is closed, now the power from main bus flows to the feeder line through its main breaker as well as bus coupler breaker via transfer bus.
(v) Now if main breaker of the feeder is switched off, total power flow will instantaneously shift to the bus coupler breaker and hence this breaker will serve the purpose of protection for the feeder.
(vi) At last the operating personnel open the isolators at both sides of the main circuit breaker to make it isolated from rest of the live system. So it can be concluded that in Main & Transfer Bus System the maintenance of circuit breaker is possible without any interruption of power. Because of this advantage the scheme is very popular for 33KV and 13KV system.